You generally DO need permission to:
You generally DO NOT need permission to:
A citation for an image or figure should have the following:
Sample citations for Creative Commons images can be found here.
If the original source is a book or journal, include the full citation for the source, not just a URL (even if you originally retrieved the work online). More information about book and article citations can be found on the Pumerantz Library's Citation Style research guide.
If the original source is a website, embed the link to the title rather than typing out the full URL in the citation.
Who owns the copyright?
How do I contact the copyright owner?
How long does it take to hear back?
It depends! In some cases, you will hear back in a few days. Other times, you may hear back in weeks, months--or never. It is a good idea to give yourself at least a month or two if you can.
Will I be charged a fee to reuse material?
Again, it depends on the copyright owner. Many creators and publishers will allow students to reuse items in their theses or dissertations for free. Others may charge a nominal fee or fees ranging in the hundreds of dollars.
What are my options if permission is denied or too expensive--or if I just never hear back?
It is a good idea to have a backup plan, like another permission-free image or a brief written description of the desired figure (in your own words) to use instead. If only the original material will work, you can consider appealing (once, and politely) to the copyright owner. If this does not work, you may need to cut the material altogether.
Can I just redraw the figure myself? Then I'll have the rights to the image, right?
No. This is legally murky at best (if you redraw the image in a completely different way) and shady/illegal at worst. Use one of the solutions listed above instead.