URL: https://westernu.libguides.com/citation_style

Citation Style: AMA Style


AMA Style

The AMA style is taken from the book, AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11th ed. There is also a copy in the library's reference collection located in the basement.

General Guidelines

Serif type font is generally used for the body of a document.

  • Times New RomanCourier, etc.

 Sans serif type font is used for contrasting and complementary elements. For example, department head, title, subtitle, abstract, etc.

  • ArialTahoma, etc.

Font size 10-12 point is acceptable.

Double spaced

Page alignment is flush left (creating an uneven right margin)

In-Text Citations

 Cite a passage in text by placing a superscript number following the citation.

  • Example:
    In previous studies, the effect on intraocular pressure appeared quickly.23

 Number the citations in order as they appear in the text.

When citing a previously used source, reuse the same superscript number.

 A passage can contain more than one citation.

  • Example:
    Patients with various kinds of glaucoma have been found to have normal aqueous humor production.42,43

 The superscript numbers should be placed outside periods and commas, and inside colons and semicolons.

 If more than 2 references are cited in a row, use a hyphen to join the first and last numbers of a closed series. Use commas without a space between numbers.

  • Example:
    The derived data were as follows,1,3-8,19

 If a citation has more than 23 characters, including spaces and punctuation, use an asterisk in the text and put the citation in a footnote at the bottom of the page.

  • Example:
    As reported previously,*

    *References 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 21, 24-29, 31.


Format of headings should be consistent throughout the paper

 Headings are used in abstracts as well.

 Some typical headings are

  • Methods
  • Results
  • Comment

 Introduction is usually not given a heading


  • Enclose direct quote of no more than 4 typewritten lines in double quotation marks.
  • For quotes longer than 4 lines, use a block format in reduced type without quotation marks.
  • A superscript number is added at the end of the quotation and the citation is listed with the other references.



  • For more than 6 authors, name the first 3 followed by "et al."

 Article/Chapter Titles

  • Capitalize only the first letter of the first word
  • Subtitles begin with a lowercase letter

 Book Titles

  • Capitalize first letter of every major word in title and subtitle
  • Italicize entire title

 Journal Titles

  • Abbreviate title according to PubMed journal list
  • Italicize abbreviated title

 References are in numbered format. The first reference cited in text should be listed first.

 If available, include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), for electronic journals in place of the URL. This is generally found on the first page of an article.

Reference Examples

Journal Article- less than 6 authors:

1. Sedivy JM. Telomeres limit cancer growth by inducing senescence: long-sought in vivo evidence obtained. Cancer Cell. 2007;11(5):389-391.

Journal Article- more than 6 authors:

2. Silva SM, Castro RS, Costa FA, et al. Conidiobolomycosis in sheep in Brazil. Vet Pathol. 2007;44(3):314-319.


3. Saladin KS.Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. 4th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2007.

Chapter in an Edited Book:

4. Rabow MW, Pantilat SZ. Care at the end of life. In: Tierney LM Jr, McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, eds. Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment. 45th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2006:67-85.

Electronic Journal- with DOI:

5. Miller KA, Siscovick DS, Sheppard L, et al. Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(5):447-458. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa054409.

Electronic Journal- with URL:

6. Duchin JS. Can preparedness for biological terrorism save us from pertussis? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(2):106-107. http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/106. Accessed August 27, 2007.

Electronic Book Chapter- no page numbers:

7. Gonzalez FJ, Tukey RH. Drug Metabolism: how humans cope with exposure to xenobiotics. In: Brunton LL, ed. Goodman and Gilman's the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2006:chap 3. http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID= 28. Accessed February 15, 2007

Web Site:

8. HIV/AIDS: basic information. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/basic/index.htm. Accessed April 17, 2009.

Published Presentation from a Meeting:

9. Bruyett D. Canine hyperadrenocortisism: deciding on treatment options. In: Proceedings of the Northeast Veterinary Conference: August 8-10, 2004; Providence, RI: Tufts NEVC LLC; 2004: 387-402.

Meeting Presentations (Unpublished)

10. Scott JD, Hines K, Huynh QT. Evaluation of the rate of publications/presentations of a required research experience. Poster presented at: FIP World Congress of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; September 10-14, 2017; Seoul, Republic of Korea.

*Note: While classroom lectures are not covered in AMA (since they are typically not cited in professional publications), you can use a format similar to this if you are citing a course presentation, e.g.:

11. Hines K, Visk C. PICO and evidence ranking for clinical questions. Lecture presented at: Foundations of Osteopathic Medicine 5 Conference Week; October 23, 2023; Pomona, CA.

Theses or Dissertations:

12. Bhumireddy P. Characterization of Binding Sites and Inhibitory Mechanisms for Antidepressants on the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor. Master's Thesis. Pomona, CA: Western University of Health Sciences; 2006.

Package Inserts:

13. Zoloft. Package insert. Viatris Specialty LLC; 2022.


14. Paoloni J. Approach to the adult with unspecified hip pain. UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer; 2023. Updated June 14, 2023. Accessed October 21, 2023. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-the-adult-with-unspecified-hip-pain 

Government or Agency Reports:

This should include: 1) name of author(s), if given; 2) title of bulletin; 3) name of the issuing bureau, agency, or department; 4) date of publication; 5) page numbers (if specified); 6) publication number (if any); 7) series number (if given); 8) online accessed date (if applicable); and 9) web address (if applicable).

15. World Health Organization. World Report on the Health of Refugees and Migrants. World Health Organization; 2022. Accessed October 21, 2023. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240054462 


16. Stata 14. Version 14. StataCorp; 2015. Accessed March 14, 2016. http://www.stata.com/ 

AI/LLM/Generative Text Tools: 

Guidelines on the use and citation of AI, large language models, and generative text tools are in flux and best practices are still emerging. Since generative AI tools and large language models are not able to be held accountable for the text they generate, they do not qualify as an author or creator. Since their output varies so substantially based on user input, the text they generate is not replicable or retrievable; therefore, it does not make sense to cite their contributions as a software either, because users would expect a particular version number to yield predictable results.

However, since the ideas or wording was not generated exclusively by the user, it is important to note the contribution of these tools. This can best be done in either the methods or acknowledgement section. Be sure to name the tool and explain when and how it was used (to generate ideas, check results, etc.). It is a good idea to also include the prompt or series of prompts you used.

These are general suggestions, but there are many opinions and context matters. Please consult your instructor or prospective publisher to check whether your proposed use of AI tools is appropriate in your given case and follow any further proposed guidance they offer.

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